(A good source in creating this chronology has been SPUMS Journal Volume 29 No.2 June 1999. Spums Archive
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1939 Louis Mari de Corlieu
de Corlieu is attributed as the inventor of the first elastic swim fins. He began serial production of his fins in 1939. The fins were used, among others, by Jaques Yves Costeau during the production of the world’s first underwater film, Shipwreck, in 1943 and by US forces on D-Day 1944. Note. the picture shows a further development from 1952 81.
1939 Hans Hass
Austrian Hans Hass published his first book, Diving to Adventure, with underwater photo 1939. In 1940 came his first underwater film, Pirsch unter Wasser. In 1941, Hass moved to Berlin, where he started the association ”Expedition für biologische Meereskunde”.
Thanks to his many lectures, in 1942 Hass was able to buy the sailing ship Seeteufel, His idea was to use the ship for his diving/photo expeditions in the Mediterranean, but because of the ongoing war, the ship could not leave the port of Rostock / Warnemünde. When the Red Army besieged the city in 1945, they seized the ship and took it to Leningrad (St. Petersburg) 82, 83.
Hass instead rented the ship Piraeus and sailed, filmed and photographed in the Aegean Sea.
In the spring and summer of 1943, Hass spent several months at Stazione Zoologica in Naples and Capri to study and collect Bryozoa, aquatic invertebrates, for his doctoral dissertation in zoology. In February 1944, he completed his dissertation and completed his doctorate.
Hass presented his energy hypothesis, which was the focus of his work in recent years. The hypothesis suggests that the behavior of all life forms – human, non-human animals and plants, are of common origin.
In combination with leadership strategies, Hass published in 1969 a paper on similarities with evolution. In the 1970s he dealt with environmental and commercial themes and was appointed professor at the University of Vienna. In 1983, he began long-term studies and guidance on predatory animal instincts in his professional life. In a business-economical way, he consolidated marine biology, behavioral research and management theories in one context. From his point of view, his energy theory could not be disproved.
Hass also made several diving and photo-technical innovations over the years 84.
1938: New lightweight uv-camera for ROBOT
1940: First uv-photo (Catalina Island, USA) and uv-movie
1941: Development of technic for divining for research, industry and sport.
1944: Construction of a heliox-rebreather (prototype)
1949: New system for deep sea film and photo (named Bathyopthalm)
1949: Patent all over the world for a new method for fishing with radio signals (named Elektro-Marina)
1949: System Hans Hass swim-fin designed of Hans Hass and produced by Semperit in Vienna from 1949 and from 1951 of Baracuda from Hamburg and Heinke i London.
1950: Uw-camera house ”Leica System Hans Hass” with electronic flash
1954: Uw-camera house ”Rolleimarin System Hans Hass”, also asa stereo camera
1955: Co-development and marketing of a diving watch ENICAR Sherpa
1956: New patented design of a swim-fin (named Superfish)
1973: Building of an uw-habitat (Almeria, Spanien)
1977: Construction of a small uw-habitat together with the german company BRUKER. The habitat was to be used for deep sea research, tourism and oilprospekting.
1983: Development and marketing of an innovative decompression computer (named ”Deco-Brain”)
(Redacted note. 1974 was Hass Swedish Sports Diving Association’s guest and lecturer for sports diving clubs.)
1940 Dottie Frazer
In 1940, Dottie Frazier began teaching diving for the YMCA and became the world’s first certified female dive instructor in 1955 when she received her instructor certificate at the Los Angeles County Underwater Instructors Certification Course. Later, she also became the world’s first female heavy diver. She was the first woman in the world to own and run a dive shop. Dottie Frazier then began producing her own series of wetsuits as well as producing suits for US Divers, Healthways and Navy UDT teams. Once again, Dottie became the first to be the first woman to commercially produce both dry and wet suits 85 .
1940-talet Jacques-Yves Cousteau & Emile Gagnan
Jacques-Yves Cousteau entered the École Navale (Naval Academy) in Brest in 1930. During World War II he was an aide to the inventor Emile Gagnan, and together in 1943, they designed a regulator that regulated the amount of inhalation air for the diver based on how much the diver was breathing, a demand valve. The Aqualung, as it was called, became the first commercially viable diving equipment for sport diving. The ship Calypso, which had previously been a minesweeper and then operated as a ferry between Malta and Gozo, had been purchased by banker Loel Guiness. For the symbolic sum of 1 Franc per year, he let Cousteau rent the ship for one franc per year. With his team, Costeau traveled around to interesting dive sites, which were later described in both books and films, which became particularly important for the interest in sports diving and marine biolog86.
1940 Dr. Eugenie Clark
Eugenie Clark, also known as ”The Shark Lady”. Dr. Clark was known throughout the world as the scientific expert on fish, and has also had some fish named after her. However, her passion was sharks. Dr. Clark has been named Honorary Doctor on three occasions and received awards from the National Geographic Society, the Explorers Club, the Underwater Society of America, the American Littoral Society, the Gold Medal Award of the Society of Women Geographers and the President’s Medal at the University of Maryland. She has authored three books and over 160 scientific and popular science articles.
Dr. Clark learned to dive in the 1940s at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Unfortunately, she and another female scientist were prohibited from participating in overnight diving trips – which limited their ability to conduct research. After working at the American Museum of Natural History, Dr. Clark Cape Haze Marine Laboratory (now Mote Marine Laboratory) 1955 to devote more time to shark research.
She did 72 deep dives. Her latest research project concerned the behavior of tropical sandfishes and deep sea sharks. These studies have been presented in 12 articles she has written for the National Geographic magazine 87